A broad phrase for a range of machining applications is CNC machining. The term “CNC” alludes to the machine’s programmable feature, which enables the machine to carry out a variety of tasks with little to no human intervention.
CNC stands for “Computer Numerical Controlled.” The manufacturing of a component utilizing a CNC-controlled machine is known as CNC machining.
The phrase refers to several subtractive manufacturing techniques where the material is taken out of a stock workpiece or bar to create a final part. Four different types of CNC machines can carry out the five typical forms of CNC machining.
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Table of Contents
1 – CNC Lathes and Turning Machines
The capacity to rotate (turn) materials while milling is a distinguishing feature of CNC lathes and turning machines. These machines feed their cutting tools around the revolving bar stock in a linear motion, removing material from the circumferential until the desired diameter (and feature) is obtained.
CNC Swiss lathes are a subset of CNC lathes (which are the type of machines Pioneer Service operates). With CNC Swiss lathes, the material bar rotates and enters the machine by sliding axially via a guide bushing (a holding mechanism).
As the tooling shapes the features of the item (leading to better/tighter tolerances), this offers considerably greater support for the material. Drilled holes, bores, broaches, reamed holes, slots, tapping, tapers, and threads are just a few of the internal and external features that CNC lathes and turning machines can add to the component.
2. CNC Milling Machines
The capacity of CNC milling machines to rotate cutting tools while retaining the material workpiece or block motionless is one of these machines’ distinguishing features. They are capable of creating a variety of shapes, such as face-milled features (thin, flat surfaces and cavities in the workpiece) and peripheral-milled features (deep cavities such as slots and threads).
The shapes and features of components made on CNC milling machines are typically square or rectangular.
3. CNC Laser Machines
To precisely cut, slice, or engrave objects, CNC laser machines use a pointed router with a highly concentrated laser beam. A cut is made in the material as a result of the laser heating it to the point where it melts or vaporizes. Usually, the material is in a sheet format, and a precise cut is made by moving the laser beam back and forth over the material.
Compared to traditional cutting machines (lathes, turning centers, mills), this approach can create a larger variety of designs and frequently results in cuts and/or edges that do not need additional finishing procedures.
4. CNC Electrical Discharge Machines (EDM)
A CNC electric discharge machine (EDM) shapes materials into the required shape using carefully regulated electrical sparks. It is also known as wire burning, dies sinking, spark machining, and spark erosion.
The machine is designed to emit an electrical discharge from the electrode wire that generates a great deal of heat, and a component is positioned underneath the electrode wire (up to 21,000 degrees Fahrenheit). To generate the desired shape or feature, the material is melted or washed away with liquid.